Advancing theological and scientific literacy for today’s ʿulamāʾ
2.3.3 Islamic Theology
Mausoleum of Omar Khayyam, Neyshabur, Iran. Photo Credit: Ninara.
Kalam generally dealt either with attempting to justify religious beliefs to reason, or with employing reason to draw new conclusions and consequences from these beliefs. Its doctrines comprise three major components: the articulation of what a school regarded as fundamental beliefs; the construction of the speculative framework within which these beliefs must be understood; and the attempt to give coherence to these views within the accepted speculative framework. The various schools of kalam agreed with the traditionalists in accepting the authority of texts as the basis of the first component. They disagreed, however, about the extent to which these texts should be subjected to ‘rational’ analysis… (Islamic Philosophy Online).
This article from Islamic Philosophy Online, which has abundant resources on Islamic thought, presents an overview of the Islamic theological tradition and its contending schools of thought. It is written by Dean Abdelwahab El-Affendi of the Doha Institute.
The Madrasa Discourses project proposes that a conciliation of traditional Islamic thought with contemporary scientific and philosophical worldviews can result in orthodox affirmations of human dignity essential for peaceful coexistence in a pluralistic world.