In this section, we study the impact of foreign influences on the shape of classical Islamic thought. We focus in particular on the role of Greek thought for philosophy and science, including the religious sciences of theology and law, as well as the influence of Persian culture for political thought. The translation movement centered in Baghdad under the Abbasids from the ninth to eleventh centuries contextualizes the historical period.

Key Terms:

  • Cosmology
  • Cosmopolitanism

Photo: Old Jerusalem. Photo Credit: Lazhar Neftien, 2009. CC BY 2.0.

Learning Materials: