How do we know what we know? On what basis do we believe our view of revelation and reality is correct? We continue reading more by the founder of one of the major theological schools in Sunni Islam, Abu Mansur Maturidi (d. 944), on this very question. Centuries later, theologians Saʿd al-Din Taftazani (d. 1390) and Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (d. 1111) discuss the overlaps between theology (kalām), philosophy (falsafa), and science.

What are the implications for theology if our philosophy and scientific beliefs have shifted? Should this new material be taken into consideration?

Key Terms:

  • Epistemology, or Theory of knowledge

Thumbnail: “Mosque Book” prayer book, Abuja. Photo Credit: Mark Fischer, 2014. CC BY-SA 2.0.

Learning Materials: